In 1590, a prince called Emir Fakhr el-Dine from the Lebanese family of Ma'an became the third Ma'an emir to govern the Emirate of the Shuf.
In 1610, the first printing press of the empire was built in Lebanon, in the Monastery of Qozhaya, in the Kadisha valley, using "Syriac" characters, a language close to that of the Aramaic that Jesus Christ spoke.
Emir Fakhr el-Dine is considered the founder of modern Lebanon. In 1613, the army of the Wali of Damascus invaded the region. Fakhr el-Dine fled to Italy, but returned after five years of exile, and re-conquered his emirate. His victory was such that the Ottoman Sultan gave him the tile of "sultan el-barr". But Fakhr el-Dine became too powerful. He took refuge in a cave in the valley of Jezzine: Fakhr el-Dine Cave. In 1633 Fakhr el-Dine was captured and imprisoned in Istanbul. He was executed two years later.
Fakhr el-Dine Cave:
The entrance to the cave in the valley of Jezzine is so close that one has to drag grovel. Carved in the rock, hidden by bushes and crevices of the rock, she witnessed the arrest of Fakhr el-Dine in February 1633 by the Ottomans who criticized him the opening to the West and its ambitions of independence.
This cave can be visited with a tour guide in Jezzine. More information is available at the hotel.